Business travel is sometimes only one night; and even when not checking anything, there can still be problems. A few ideas, based on unfortunate experiences:
1. If you forget to bring something you must have - like pants - there's likely an all-night Wal-Mart option. Other alternative is to wear business clothes on the flight, but so much less comfortable especially if 5-8 hours on planes each way.
2. Always email your entire presentation to yourself; or email work you do in the hotel room to yourself. Too many things can go wrong with files and laptops.
3. Research the hotel before you land, and print directions from the airport. Good to know time and distance to expect. Arriving in the middle of the night due to schedule or delays makes details like room service hours matter.
4. If your rent a car (or hotel) shuttle bus doesn't show up, ask another brand to drop you off. Even if they say they can't, for $10 or $20 they can.
5. If something an absolute nuisance for you (like city sounds, not having a bathtub) be sure to mention it at check-in rather than getting to your room and calling to move. And one call to move is a solution.
6. It's worth the 20 seconds to look at the chart to identify nearest fire exit/stairs.
7. Bring your own headset if you watch the movie or in-air television. Otherwise you can potentially need to wrestle with the hook to the ear plastic versions.
8. Don't leave your hotel key in the room (in case you find you forgot something); and if you're at an airport hotel, and if still time on room, consider not even checking out until you're at the airport and somewhat confident your flight is leaving (especially if very early morning flight).